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The Present Perfect

The Present Perfect

The Present Perfect

the present perfect use
The Present Perfect


[Has/have + past participle]


I have walked.
I have not walked.
Have I walked?


The Present Perfect is used to indicate a link between the present and the past. The time of the action is before now but not specified, and we are often more interested in the result than in the action itself.

Unspecified Time before Now:

We use the Present Perfect to say that an action happened at an unspecified time before now. The exact time is not important.


We use the Present Perfect to talk about experiences in life until now.  It is like saying, "I have the experience of..." You can also use this tense to say that you have never had a certain experience.
I’ve/have been to Berlin but I have not been to Italy.
I have visited many amazing cities.
He’s/ has met some of the actors.

An action that was completed in the very recent past,

For completed actions that happened recently, but we don't say exactly when:
I have just got back to my hotel room.

Change Over Time:

We often use the Present Perfect to talk about change that has happened over a period of time.
Many of Japan's biggest cities have become more polluted.

Duration from the past until now:

We use the Present Perfect to talk about something that started in the past and continues in the present:
a. They haven't lived here for years.
b. She has worked in the bank for five years.

After the construction of to be (in the present) +ordinal or superlative:
This is the first time I have been to New York.
He is the most honest person I have ever met.

With superlative:

Shanghai is the most spectacular city I have ever seen in my life.

Often in news reporting:

We use the Present Perfect for giving news about things that happened in the past, but are connected to now. We don't say the exact time they happened.
The use of the present perfect makes the event seem more immediate and of direct relevance to the present:
The Prime Minister has announced that taxes are to increase from the beginning of next year.
At least five people have been killed in a car accident.

With time reference

With reference to a period of time that is still continuing in the present
a. I have worked hard this week.
b. It has rained a lot this year.
c. We haven't seen her today.

 With adverbials:

Already refers to an action that has happened at an unspecified time before now. It suggests that there is no need for repetition.
We have already sung five songs.
Ever, Never
The adverbs ever and never express the idea of an unidentified time before now.
*You must not use never and not together
-Have you ever eaten Indian food?
- I have never ridden a horse.

We use for with a period of time (how long).
-He has lived in the US for two years.
We use since with a period in time (to say when something started).
- He has lived in the US since 2006.
We usually use yet in negative sentences and questions, yet usually goes at the end of sentence or clause.
-Have they found their camera yet? (?)
-They haven’t found their camera yet. (-)
We use just to say something has not happened, but we think it will happen in the future.
She has just arrived from Africa.

More adverbials:

We have moved to our new house recently.
We have moved to our new house lately.
Up to now:
He has slept in a tent up to now.
So far:
They have driven their old car so far.


Many students have visited that library. Active
That Library has been visited by many students. Passive